For the sake of completeness, we quickly state the second-order conditions for constrained optimality; they will not be used in the sequel. For the necessary condition, suppose that is a regular point of and a local minimum of over , where is defined by the equality constraints (1.18) as before. We let be the vector of Lagrange multipliers provided by the first-order necessary condition, and define the augmented cost as in (1.27). We also assume that is . Consider the Hessian of with respect to evaluated at :
The second-order necessary condition says that this Hessian matrix must be positive semidefinite on the tangent space to at , i.e., we must have for all . Note that this is weaker than asking the above Hessian matrix to be positive semidefinite in the usual sense (on the entire ).
The second-order sufficient condition says that a point is a strict constrained local minimum of if the first-order necessary condition for optimality (1.25) holds and, in addition, we have