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Calculus of Variations and Optimal Control Theory
A Concise Introduction

Daniel Liberzon

Since the building of the universe is perfect and is created by the wisdom creator, nothing arises in the universe in which one cannot see the sense of some maximum or minimum.

Leonhard Euler

The words ``control theory'' are, of course, of recent origin, but the subject itself is much older, since it contains the classical calculus of variations as a special case, and the first calculus of variations problems go back to classical Greece.

Hector J. Sussmann

Cover illustration by Polina Ben-Sira ©2009

Daniel 2010-12-20