Our derivation of the Weierstrass-Erdmann corner conditions is similar to the one given in [GF63, Section 15] (except that in [GF63] it is deduced from the general formula for the variation of a functional, while we present a self-contained argument). However, the discussion of these conditions in [GF63] does not correctly distinguish between weak and strong minima; see [Mac05, Chapter 11] for a more accurate treatment of this issue. The Weierstrass -function is introduced in [GF63, Section 34] as well as [Mac05, Section 11.3]. A proof of the Weierstrass necessary condition is only sketched in [GF63]; a complete proof similar to ours can be found, e.g., in [Lei81] or [BM91]. The interested reader should also peruse McShane's paper [McS39], which is based on the monograph [Bli30] by Bliss. Both [Bli30] and [McS39] actually discuss more general constrained problems, and [Bli30] offers nice historical remarks at the end. For a careful look at the Hamiltonian reformulation of the Weierstrass necessary condition, see [Sus00, Handout 3]. A sufficient condition for a strong minimum based on the concept of a field is developed in [GF63, Sections 32-34].
The brachistochrone problem (Example 3.2 in Section 3.2) is studied in detail from both the calculus of variations and the optimal control viewpoints in the paper [SW97], which we already mentioned in the notes and references for Chapter 2. Conditions for existence and uniqueness of solutions, along the lines of Section 3.3.1, can be found in standard texts; see, e.g., [Kha02, Section 3.1] or [Son98, Appendix C.3] for ordinary differential equations without controls and [AF66, Section 3-18] or [Son98, Section 2.6] for control systems. The conditions given in [Son98] are sharper than those in [Kha02] and [AF66] but the proofs are essentially the same. Appendix C of [Son98] can also be consulted for more information on absolutely continuous and measurable functions.
From Section 3.3.2 until the end of the chapter, our primary reference was [AF66] (which, by the way, was the first textbook on optimal control ever written). Cost functionals and transformations between their various forms are presented in [AF66, Sections 4-12, 5-14, 5-16]. The discussion on target sets is compiled from [AF66, Sections 4-12, 4-13, 5-12, 5-14]. Our presentation of the variational approach follows [AF66, Section 5-7], although the sign convention in [AF66] is the opposite of ours (see the explanation on page above). Sufficient conditions for optimality--the subject that we only touched in Exercise 3.8--are developed in [AF66, Section 5-8]. The material of Sections 3.4.4 and 3.4.5 is elaborated upon in [AF66, Sections 5-9, 5-10].